Teaching is just as challenging as learning. You have to present information in a way that is easy to understand, keep your learners engaged, and ensure that your message is getting across. Whether you’re teaching a class, giving a presentation, or training a team, you’re likely to run into these types of challenges.
However, the good news is that there are some basic instructional design principles that you can use to overcome these obstacles. And by using these techniques, you can create effective and engaging learning experiences for your learners.
First and Foremost—Exactly What is Instructional Design?
The instructional design may seem complicated, but in reality, it’s quite simple. It refers to the process of creating educational programs, courses, and other learning materials.
Imagine you want to teach your team a new skill. In that case, the instructional design would be organizing and presenting that information in a manner that is understandable for the learners and effectively provides the information they need.
There are quite a few experts in the field who have developed and researched instructional design, but Robert M. Gagné (a renowned instructional psychologist) is widely regarded as the father of instructional design. Throughout his career, he has made significant contributions to the field and continues influencing instructional design with his research and work.
Now that you have a basic understanding of instructional design. Let’s move on to the principles of instructional design.
9 Key Instructional Design Principles
According to Robert M. Gagné, the following are the 9 instructional design principles you can use to create an effective learning experience.
- Gaining attention
- Informing learners about objectives
- Stimulating recall of prior learning
- Presenting the subject matter
- Providing learning guidance
- Eliciting performance
- Providing feedback
- Assessing performance
- Enhancing retention and transfer
However, to make it easier for you to understand, we’ve categorized these nine principles into three categories: setting the stage, delivering the instruction, and evaluating and reinforcing.
Setting The Stage
- Gaining Attention
When it comes to creating an effective learning experience, the first step is to grab the learners’ attention. This principle is about capturing the learners’ interest and motivating them to participate in the learning process.
The way to gain attention is by using different strategies, such as introducing a story, using real-world examples, or asking questions that make the learners think. Here the key is just to make the first few minutes of your instruction as engaging as possible. It will set the tone for the rest of your instructions and create a positive learning environment.
- Informing Learners about Objectives
Once you have the learners’ attention, the next step is to inform them of the objectives of the instruction. Essentially, you provide your learners with a clear understanding of what they will learn, how they will learn it, and why it is important.
You can do this by providing a clear overview of the instruction, outlining the main topics, and providing specific learning objectives. By providing this information, learners will have a clear understanding of what they need to do to be successful.
- Recalling of Prior Learning
When designing instruction, it’s important to remember that your learners likely have some prior knowledge about the topic. Instead of starting from scratch, you can build on their existing knowledge to create a more effective and engaging learning experience.
This way, you can create a deeper understanding of the material and increase the chances of retention. To stimulate recall of prior learning, you can use different strategies such as pre-assessments, review activities, or discussion questions.
As a result, learners can connect the new information to their existing knowledge, making it more meaningful and easier to understand.
Delivering the Instruction
- Presenting the Topic
Now that you’ve laid the foundation, it’s time for you to present the subject matter. Using this principle, you should deliver the instruction clearly and concisely. The instructions should be broken down into manageable chunks and presented in a logical sequence.
It would be best if you design your topics’ content that meets the needs of the learners, such as using appropriate examples, visual aids, and interactive activities. With these strategies, learners are likely to understand the topic more quickly and retain the information for longer periods of time.
- Providing Learning Guidance
Even if you have put in the effort to create clear and well-structured course materials, your learners might still have difficulty with certain concepts or elements. That’s why it is essential to be available and ready to provide guidance and support to help learners overcome obstacles.
Thus, this principle is one of the key elements of Gagné’s instructional design principles, emphasizing the importance of providing learning guidance to support learners’ understanding and retention of the material.
You can achieve this through clear explanations, examples, and demonstrations. Also, you can use some activities that allow the learners to apply the information, such as case studies, problem-solving exercises, or simulations. In this way, learners will become better acquainted with the subject matter and be able to apply it to real-life situations.
- Eliciting Performance
You’ve probably heard that repeating what someone has said is a great way to confirm that you’ve understood them correctly. By paraphrasing their statement, you can verify that you comprehend their message.
As in instructional design, the same principle applies. However, instead of expecting learners to recite the information line by line, the focus is on immediately providing them opportunities to apply their knowledge to confirm their understanding.
This confirmation of understanding can come in various forms, such as you can take a quiz at the end of the learning program or provide opportunities for learners to demonstrate what they’ve learned through group exercises or simulated scenarios. The key is immediately providing opportunities for learners to apply their knowledge and confirm their understanding.
Remember, the information is only valuable when learners understand how to use it, using this step as an opportunity to make sure they have understood the information.
Evaluating and Reinforcing
- Providing Feedback
Providing feedback is an essential aspect of instructional design principles, but it’s not something that you can only do at the end of the learning initiative. However, giving feedback throughout the learning process keeps learners engaged and helps them understand what they are learning.
You can achieve this by incorporating games and exercises that test their knowledge at various points during the course and by giving feedback on their progress and performance.
Additionally, it’s important to use these insights to inform the instruction moving forward. If most learners have trouble understanding a concept, the concept might need to be revisited and reinforced.
- Assessing Performance
Assessing performance is like taking a snapshot of your learners’ understanding. It’s a way to measure their progress and determine whether they truly understood and retained the material. Think of it as a report card for your learners, providing valuable insight into their strengths and areas for improvement.
Just like a report card, it’s not only important to measure progress but also to use that information to guide instruction. If a learner struggles in a particular area, you can provide additional support and resources to ensure they succeed. On the other hand, if a learner excels, you can challenge them with more advanced material to continue their growth.
To put it simply, assessing performance isn’t only about giving grades or scores; it’s about using the results to improve instruction and enhance the learning experience for your learners.
- Enhancing Retention and Transfer
Your ultimate goal as an instructional designer is to ensure that the information you impart is temporary and long-lasting. You want to equip your learners with knowledge and skills they can use in the future.
To achieve this, it’s not enough to just rely on assessments to confirm their understanding. You should also provide resources and opportunities for them to continue learning and practicing what they’ve learned.
This can include things like message boards and groups where they can exchange information or workshops so that their skills remain sharp.
Lastly, you must remember that learning is a continuous process, and your goal is to make sure that your learners don’t stop but continue to grow and develop.
In a nutshell, Gagné’s nine instructional design principles provide a comprehensive guide for creating compelling and engaging learning experiences. Even though they may seem like a lot to take, incorporating them into your instructional design process becomes intuitive as you develop your course or learning program. So, remember that your goal is to make learning informative and exciting to keep your learners engaged.
Furthermore, don’t just stop here; take action and put these principles into practice. As you design your next learning initiative, use these principles of instructional design as your guide and see how they can enhance the quality of your instruction.
Hopefully, you will succeed!
Tahir works as a content specialist at APPExperts.io and has a unique ability to convey ideas creatively. Aside from work, he loves watching movies and reading technology articles, mainly about blockchain and crypto.